AHASUERUS-XERXES (Heb. אחשורש; Aram. Papyri חשי(א)רש; Dura Synagogue חשורש; Old Persian Xšayāršā; Gr. Ξερξης). If one ignores the vowels, the biblical consonantal text is a close approximation of the king's name. The Persian king known to the Greeks as Xerxes I (reigned 486–465 B.C.E.) was the son of darius I. As soon as he ascended the throne, Xerxes was confronted by a revolt in Egypt. At the same time, the enemies of Judah apparently tried to incite him against its inhabitants (Ezra 4:6). After reducing Egypt "to a worse state of servitude than it was in under Darius" and crushing another revolt in Babylon, he attempted a more ambitious undertaking, the subjugation of Greece. After the disastrous outcome of this adventure, which took place between the third and seventh years of his reign, Xerxes settled down to a life of self-indulgence, reflected in the account of Ahasuerus in the scroll of esther , which agrees with the Greek authors in its conception, or even caricature, of life at the Persian court. Ahasuerus is represented in the Book of Daniel as the father of darius the Mede (Dan. 9:1) and, in one recension of the Book of Tobit, as allied with Nebuchadnezzar at the capture of Nineveh (Tob. 14:15). Since Nineveh was actually captured (in 612 B.C.E.) by kings Cyaxares of Media and Nabopolassar of Babylon, it is natural to surmise that later generations confused Cyaxares with Ahasuerus-Xerxes just as they confused Nabopolassar with Nebuchadnezzar. The Book of Esther does not mention the death of Xerxes in a bloody court coup. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: H.T. Olmstead, History of the Persian Empire (1948), 214 ff.; R.N. Frye, The Heritage of Persia (1962), index; R.G. Kent, Old Persian (19532), 147–53. ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: P. Briant, From Cyrus to Alexander (2002), 515–68. (Isaiah Gafni / Harold Louis Ginsberg)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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  • Ahasuerus — (Hebrew Name|אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ|Aḥašveroš|ʾĂḥašwērôš, Latin: Xerxes , Persian: Khashayarshah , commonly transliterated Achashverosh) is a name used several times in the Hebrew Bible, as well as related legends and apocrypha.Equivalence of the names… …   Wikipedia

  • Xerxes — Ruler of Persia from 486 to 465 BCE; called Ahasuerus in Ezra 4:6. His defeat by the Greeks at the naval battle of Salamis in 480 BCE is described by the Greek historian Herodotus. There are problems about the biblical chronology, since the… …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Xerxes — may refer to these Persian kings: *Xerxes I of Persia, reigned 485 ndash;465 BC, aka (also known as) Xerxes the Great *Xerxes II of Persia, reigned 424 BCXerxes may also refer to: *Xerxes of Armenia, Armenian king, assassinated about 212 BC… …   Wikipedia

  • Xerxes II of Persia — Xerxes II (Xšayāršā) was a Persian king and the son and successor of Artaxerxes I. After a reign of forty five days, he was assassinated in 424 BC by his brother Sogdianus, who in turn was murdered by Darius II. He is an obscure historical figure …   Wikipedia

  • Ahasuerus — [ə haz΄yo͞o ir′əs, əhas΄yo͞o ir′əs] n. [Heb < OPers Xxayars̆an] Bible either of two kings of the Medes and Persians, esp. the one (often identified as Xerxes I) who was married to Esther: Esth. 1; Ezra 4:6 …   English World dictionary

  • Xerxes I of Persia — ] , foretelling his invasion of Greece. The reference to Darius the son of Ahasuerus in , in turn corresponding to Babylonian ak. Aḫšiyaršu .All of these names originate with Old Persian pe. Xšayāršā .In the Book of EstherFor these same reasons… …   Wikipedia

  • Ahasuerus — Ahasveros (altpersisch Chšayāŗšā, hebräisch אֲחַשְׁוֵרוֹשׁ Achashverosh, aramäisch Aḫšeweruš, griechisch Ασυηρος, lateinisch Ahasuerus, Ahasverus) ist ein Name altpersischen Ursprungs. Er wird meist als Transliteration des persischen خشیارش… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ahasuerus, King —    A transferred name which is used by Jane to Mr Rochester in Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre. Jane asks him to gratify her curiosity about something, now that they are to be Married. Rochester says: ‘I wish that instead of a mere inquiry into,… …   A dictionary of epithets and terms of address

  • Ahasuerus — Probably to be identified with Xerxes Ⅰ (486–465 BCE), who is mentioned by the Greek historian Herodotus. As portrayed in the book of Esther, Ahasuerus oscillated between threatening a holocaust at the instigation of Haman, followed by protection …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Ahasuerus —    There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture.    1) The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh.… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

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